10 posts that no one read
A couple new things, and a reminder of an old one

An eclectic list of references

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I've just finished reading through a selection of 40 articles from the マイカの時間 series that I write for ゴルフ場セミナー magazine in Japan. That's 49,015 words in English about greenkeeping, water, soil, temperature, light, organic matter, playing conditions, and fertilizer.

I put together this reference list for articles and books that I mentioned in those 40 articles. It's an eclectic list. You might like to have a look at these. Perhaps you'll turn up an article that you would like to read sometime.

More details and the full list in this document. And here is a list of all the references.

Update: I have generated the reference list again to include links to each item, and I added an item from Pat Gross.


Allen, R. G., Pereira, L., Raes, D., & Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage paper 56. Irrigation and drainage paper (Vol. 56, pp. 377–384). Rome: FAO. Retrieved from https://www.fao.org/docrep/X0490E/X0490E00.htm

Baldwin, C., & Liu, H. (2008). Altered light spectral qualities impact on warm-season turfgrass growth and development. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online, 7(9), 1–12. Retrieved from https://usgatero.msu.edu/v07/n09.pdf

Bauer, S., Lloyd, D., Horgan, B. P., & Soldat, D. J. (2012). Agronomic and physiological responses of cool-season turfgrass to fall-applied nitrogen. Crop Science, 52(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2011.03.0124

Beard, J. B., & Beard, H. J. (2005). Beard’s turfgrass encyclopedia for golf courses, grounds, lawns, sports fields. East Lansing: MI: Michigan State University Press. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=93886

Brede, A. D. (1991). Correction for slope in green speed measurement of golf course putting greens. Agronomy Journal, 83, 425–426. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1991.00021962008300020032x

Bunnell, B. T., McCarty, L. B., Faust, J. E., W. C. Bridges, Jr., & Rajapakse, N. C. (2005). Quantifying a daily light integral requirement of a “Tifeagle” bermudagrass golf green. Crop Science, 45, 569–574. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2005.0569

Carrow, R. N. (2003). Surface organic matter in bentgrass greens. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online, 2(17). Retrieved from https://usgatero.msu.edu/v02/n17.pdf

Dest, W. M., Guillard, K., Rackliffe, S. L., Chen, M. H., & Wang, X. (2010). Putting green speeds: A reality check! Applied Turfgrass Science. https://doi.org/10.1094/ATS-2010-0216-01-RS

Ervin, E., & Nichols, A. (2010). Organic matter dilution programs for sand-based putting greens in Virginia. USGA Green Section Record, 48(16), 1–4. Retrieved from https://turf.lib.msu.edu/gsr/article/ervin-nichols-organic-9-24-10.pdf

Gault, W. K. (191x). Practical golf greenkeeping. The Golf Printing; Publishing Co., London, England. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=33203

Gelernter, W., & Stowell, L. J. (2005). Improved overseeding programs: 1. the role of weather. Golf Course Management, 73(3), 108–113. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=102720

Gross, P. (2012). Hand watering greens at the U.S. Open. USGA Regional Update. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=207427

Guertal, E., & Han, D. (2009). Timing of irrigation for cooling bentgrass greens with and without fans. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online, 8(17), 1–5. Retrieved from https://usgatero.msu.edu/v08/n17.pdf

Hall, A. D. (1912). The book of the links: A symposium on golf. In (pp. 31–45). London: W. H. Smith & Son. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=134903

Hamilton, G. W., Livingston, D. W., & Gover, A. E. (1994). The effects of light-weight rolling on putting greens. London: E.; F. N. Spon. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=25095

Hartwiger, C. (2004). The importance of organic matter dynamics: How research uncovered the primary cause of secondary problems. USGA Green Section Record, 42(3), 9–11. Retrieved from https://turf.lib.msu.edu/2000s/2004/040509.pdf

Hartwiger, C. E., Peacock, C. H., DiPaola, J. M., & Cassel, D. K. (2001). Impact of light-weight rolling on putting green performance. Crop Science, 41(4), 1179–1184. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2001.4141179x

Hartwiger, C., & O’Brien, P. (2001). Core aeration by the numbers. USGA Green Section Record, 39(4), 8–9. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=68543

Jordan, J. E., White, R. H., Vietor, D. M., Hale, T. C., Thomas, J. C., & Engelke, M. C. (2003). Effect of irrigation frequency on turf quality, shoot density, and root length density of five bentgrass cultivars. Crop Science, 43(1), 282–287. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2003.2820

Kaminski, J. E., & Dernoeden, P. H. (2005). Nitrogen source impact on dead spot (ophiosphaerella agrostis) recovery in creeping bentgrass. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 10(1), 214–223. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=105374

Karcher, D., Nikolai, T., & Calhoun, R. (2001). Golfer’s perceptions of green speeds vary: Over typical stimpmeter distances, golfers are only guessing when ball-roll differences are less than 6 inches. Golf Course Management, 69(57-60). Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=72405

Karnok, K., & Tucker, K. (2008). Using wetting agents to improve irrigation efficiency: Greens with a water repellent root zone require less water when treated with a wetting agent. Golf Course Management, 76(6), 109–111. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=136496

Kussow, W., & Houlihan, S. (2006). The new soil test interpretations for Wisconsin turfgrass. Wisconsin Turfgrass News, 24(1), 1, 14–16. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=151815

Lawes, J. B., & Gilbert, J. H. (1859). Report of experiments with different manures on permanent meadow land. part III. description of plants developed by different manures. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 20, 246–272. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=179487

Lloyd, D. T., Soldat, D. J., & Stier, J. C. (2011). Low-temperature nitrogen uptake and use of three cool-season turfgrasses under controlled environments. HortScience, 46(11), 1545–1549. Retrieved from https://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/46/11/1545.full

Nikolai, T. A. (2004). The superintendent’s guide to controlling putting green speed. Wiley. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=94696

Nikolai, T., Rieke, P., J. N. Rogers III, & J. M. Vargas Jr. (2001). Turfgrass and soil responses to lightweight rolling on putting green root zone mixes. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 9(2), 604–609. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=74233

O’Brien, P., & Hartwiger, C. (2003). Aeration and topdressing for the 21st century. USGA Green Section Record, 41(2), 1–7. Retrieved from https://turf.lib.msu.edu/2000s/2003/030301.pdf

Piper, C. V. (1924). Grass experiments at Rothamsted, England. Bulletin of the Green Section of the USGA, 4(4), 101–104. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=49247

Piper, C. V., & Oakley, R. A. (1921). Rolling the turf. Bulletin of the Green Section of the USGA, 1(3), 36. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=47552

Pippin, T. (2010). The five-day program: Alternative philosophy for managing your topdressing program. USGA Green Section Record, 48(1), 17–19. Retrieved from https://turf.lib.msu.edu/gsr/2010s/2010/100117.pdf

Pote, J., Wang, Z., & Huang, B. (2006). Timing and temperature of physiological decline for creeping bentgrass. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 131(5), 608–615. Retrieved from https://journal.ashspublications.org/content/131/5/608.short

Sartain, J., & Kruse, J. (2001, April). Selected fertilizers used in turfgrass fertilization. University of Florida Extension CIR 1262. Retrieved from https://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/IR/00/00/31/23/00001/SS31800.pdf

Soper, D. Z., Dunn, J. H., Minner, D. D., & Sleper, D. A. (1988). Effects of clipping disposal, nitrogen, and growth retardants on thatch and tiller density in zoysiagrass. Crop Science, 28(2), 325–328. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1988.0011183X002800020030x

Turgeon, A. J. (2008). Turfgrass management 8th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=127766

USGA. (2012). Stimpmeter instruction booklet. Far Hills, NJ. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=70149

USGA Green Section Staff. (2004). USGA recommendations for a method of putting green construction. USGA web site. Retrieved from https://tic.msu.edu/tgif/flink?recno=94463

Watson, J., & Knowles, T. (1999). Leaching for maintenance: Factors to consider for determining the leaching requirement for crops. Arizona Water Series, 22, 1–3. Retrieved from https://extension.arizona.edu/pubs/az1107.pdf

Xu, Q., & Huang, B. (2000a). Effects of differential air and soil temperature on carbohydrate metabolism in creeping bentgrass. Crop Science, 40(5), 1368–1374. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.4051368x

Xu, Q., & Huang, B. (2000b). Growth and physiological responses of creeping bentgrass to changes in air and soil temperatures. Crop Science, 40(5), 1363–1368. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.4051363x

Zontek, S. J. (2009). When the going gets tough, go back to basics. USGA Green Section Record, 47(4), 28. Retrieved from https://turf.lib.msu.edu/2000s/2009/090728.pdf

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