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December 2016

An eclectic list of references


I've just finished reading through a selection of 40 articles from the マイカの時間 series that I write for ゴルフ場セミナー magazine in Japan. That's 49,015 words in English about greenkeeping, water, soil, temperature, light, organic matter, playing conditions, and fertilizer.

I put together this reference list for articles and books that I mentioned in those 40 articles. It's an eclectic list. You might like to have a look at these. Perhaps you'll turn up an article that you would like to read sometime.

More details and the full list in this document. And here is a list of all the references.

Update: I have generated the reference list again to include links to each item, and I added an item from Pat Gross.

Allen, R. G., Pereira, L., Raes, D., & Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage paper 56. Irrigation and drainage paper (Vol. 56, pp. 377–384). Rome: FAO. Retrieved from

Baldwin, C., & Liu, H. (2008). Altered light spectral qualities impact on warm-season turfgrass growth and development. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online, 7(9), 1–12. Retrieved from

Bauer, S., Lloyd, D., Horgan, B. P., & Soldat, D. J. (2012). Agronomic and physiological responses of cool-season turfgrass to fall-applied nitrogen. Crop Science, 52(1), 1–10.

Beard, J. B., & Beard, H. J. (2005). Beard’s turfgrass encyclopedia for golf courses, grounds, lawns, sports fields. East Lansing: MI: Michigan State University Press. Retrieved from

Brede, A. D. (1991). Correction for slope in green speed measurement of golf course putting greens. Agronomy Journal, 83, 425–426.

Bunnell, B. T., McCarty, L. B., Faust, J. E., W. C. Bridges, Jr., & Rajapakse, N. C. (2005). Quantifying a daily light integral requirement of a “Tifeagle” bermudagrass golf green. Crop Science, 45, 569–574.

Carrow, R. N. (2003). Surface organic matter in bentgrass greens. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online, 2(17). Retrieved from

Dest, W. M., Guillard, K., Rackliffe, S. L., Chen, M. H., & Wang, X. (2010). Putting green speeds: A reality check! Applied Turfgrass Science.

Ervin, E., & Nichols, A. (2010). Organic matter dilution programs for sand-based putting greens in Virginia. USGA Green Section Record, 48(16), 1–4. Retrieved from

Gault, W. K. (191x). Practical golf greenkeeping. The Golf Printing; Publishing Co., London, England. Retrieved from

Gelernter, W., & Stowell, L. J. (2005). Improved overseeding programs: 1. the role of weather. Golf Course Management, 73(3), 108–113. Retrieved from

Gross, P. (2012). Hand watering greens at the U.S. Open. USGA Regional Update. Retrieved from

Guertal, E., & Han, D. (2009). Timing of irrigation for cooling bentgrass greens with and without fans. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online, 8(17), 1–5. Retrieved from

Hall, A. D. (1912). The book of the links: A symposium on golf. In (pp. 31–45). London: W. H. Smith & Son. Retrieved from

Hamilton, G. W., Livingston, D. W., & Gover, A. E. (1994). The effects of light-weight rolling on putting greens. London: E.; F. N. Spon. Retrieved from

Hartwiger, C. (2004). The importance of organic matter dynamics: How research uncovered the primary cause of secondary problems. USGA Green Section Record, 42(3), 9–11. Retrieved from

Hartwiger, C. E., Peacock, C. H., DiPaola, J. M., & Cassel, D. K. (2001). Impact of light-weight rolling on putting green performance. Crop Science, 41(4), 1179–1184.

Hartwiger, C., & O’Brien, P. (2001). Core aeration by the numbers. USGA Green Section Record, 39(4), 8–9. Retrieved from

Jordan, J. E., White, R. H., Vietor, D. M., Hale, T. C., Thomas, J. C., & Engelke, M. C. (2003). Effect of irrigation frequency on turf quality, shoot density, and root length density of five bentgrass cultivars. Crop Science, 43(1), 282–287.

Kaminski, J. E., & Dernoeden, P. H. (2005). Nitrogen source impact on dead spot (ophiosphaerella agrostis) recovery in creeping bentgrass. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 10(1), 214–223. Retrieved from

Karcher, D., Nikolai, T., & Calhoun, R. (2001). Golfer’s perceptions of green speeds vary: Over typical stimpmeter distances, golfers are only guessing when ball-roll differences are less than 6 inches. Golf Course Management, 69(57-60). Retrieved from

Karnok, K., & Tucker, K. (2008). Using wetting agents to improve irrigation efficiency: Greens with a water repellent root zone require less water when treated with a wetting agent. Golf Course Management, 76(6), 109–111. Retrieved from

Kussow, W., & Houlihan, S. (2006). The new soil test interpretations for Wisconsin turfgrass. Wisconsin Turfgrass News, 24(1), 1, 14–16. Retrieved from

Lawes, J. B., & Gilbert, J. H. (1859). Report of experiments with different manures on permanent meadow land. part III. description of plants developed by different manures. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 20, 246–272. Retrieved from

Lloyd, D. T., Soldat, D. J., & Stier, J. C. (2011). Low-temperature nitrogen uptake and use of three cool-season turfgrasses under controlled environments. HortScience, 46(11), 1545–1549. Retrieved from

Nikolai, T. A. (2004). The superintendent’s guide to controlling putting green speed. Wiley. Retrieved from

Nikolai, T., Rieke, P., J. N. Rogers III, & J. M. Vargas Jr. (2001). Turfgrass and soil responses to lightweight rolling on putting green root zone mixes. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 9(2), 604–609. Retrieved from

O’Brien, P., & Hartwiger, C. (2003). Aeration and topdressing for the 21st century. USGA Green Section Record, 41(2), 1–7. Retrieved from

Piper, C. V. (1924). Grass experiments at Rothamsted, England. Bulletin of the Green Section of the USGA, 4(4), 101–104. Retrieved from

Piper, C. V., & Oakley, R. A. (1921). Rolling the turf. Bulletin of the Green Section of the USGA, 1(3), 36. Retrieved from

Pippin, T. (2010). The five-day program: Alternative philosophy for managing your topdressing program. USGA Green Section Record, 48(1), 17–19. Retrieved from

Pote, J., Wang, Z., & Huang, B. (2006). Timing and temperature of physiological decline for creeping bentgrass. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 131(5), 608–615. Retrieved from

Sartain, J., & Kruse, J. (2001, April). Selected fertilizers used in turfgrass fertilization. University of Florida Extension CIR 1262. Retrieved from

Soper, D. Z., Dunn, J. H., Minner, D. D., & Sleper, D. A. (1988). Effects of clipping disposal, nitrogen, and growth retardants on thatch and tiller density in zoysiagrass. Crop Science, 28(2), 325–328.

Turgeon, A. J. (2008). Turfgrass management 8th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall. Retrieved from

USGA. (2012). Stimpmeter instruction booklet. Far Hills, NJ. Retrieved from

USGA Green Section Staff. (2004). USGA recommendations for a method of putting green construction. USGA web site. Retrieved from

Watson, J., & Knowles, T. (1999). Leaching for maintenance: Factors to consider for determining the leaching requirement for crops. Arizona Water Series, 22, 1–3. Retrieved from

Xu, Q., & Huang, B. (2000a). Effects of differential air and soil temperature on carbohydrate metabolism in creeping bentgrass. Crop Science, 40(5), 1368–1374.

Xu, Q., & Huang, B. (2000b). Growth and physiological responses of creeping bentgrass to changes in air and soil temperatures. Crop Science, 40(5), 1363–1368.

Zontek, S. J. (2009). When the going gets tough, go back to basics. USGA Green Section Record, 47(4), 28. Retrieved from

10 posts that no one read

I just saw Nicholas Kristof's column entitled My 10 columns that no one read. Intrigued by that, I looked up the pageviews for this year's Viridescent posts.

At the end of this month I'll share the most read posts from this year. In the meantime, here are the 10 posts from 2016 with the lowest pageviews.

How to lose 120 million yen with frost delays

I'm bombarded at this time of year with reminders, notices, descriptions, and articles telling me about the importance of frost delays. Apparently, frost delays are essential for the health of the turf. Allow play on frozen or frosted turf, and the leaves will turn brown and start to die. In a worst case scenario, recovery from the damage could take months.

This is a story about something completely different. How about no frost delays at all, and removal of snow by any possible method so the course can remain open? That's the approach used at well over 1,000 golf courses in Japan. I guess there are about 600 courses that are at such a high elevation or are so far north that they close for the winter; at the remaining courses, golf is a year round sport.

I will admit, I was terrified to allow play on frosted turf when I was a superintendent in Japan. I'm sure I protested, explained how much the grass would be damaged, said I would not take responsibility for the damage, and so on. But much to my surprise, the damage was negligible and temporary.

I wrote about how temporary the damage is in this post about winter traffic on frozen bentgrass. As a follow-up to that, I was asked if it mattered if it was a leaf frost or a ground frost. I said I didn't know, but I would look up the temperatures from that winter and share some more details of my experience.

Here's the story.

This was at Habu CC in Chiba prefecture. The greens were Penncross creeping bentgrass, the tees and fairways were Tifway 419 bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass, and the roughs were noshiba (Zoysia japonica). Here's the 15th in November.


The course is at an elevation of 120 m. I downloaded the daily temperature data for the winter of 2000/2001 from the nearby JMA Sakahata weather station, which is also at 120 m. I think these temperatures are similar to those at the golf course.


From 29 November 2000 until 2 April 2001 there were 73 days with a low of 0°C or below. I think frost can form on the leaves even when the air temperature is above 0°C, but I'll stick with 73 days as an estimate of mornings with frozen or frosty turf.

In Japan, it is customary to do a two tee start, with tee times at 7 minute intervals, the golfers stopping for a meal at the clubhouse before starting their second nine. At Habu, there were about 3,000 rounds per month in the coldest months of that winter -- maybe more -- and 4,000 to 5,000 rounds per month in November, March, and April.

I wanted to implement frost delays, but it was impossible. The golfers wanted to play, and the owner wanted to accept their money. Let's say for each of those 73 days with frozen or frosted turf, we did not allow the golfers to play for 2 hours in the morning. That's 2 hours of tee times off 2 tees, on 7 minute intervals, which comes to 137 golfers. Let's say the green fee was 12,000 yen. And let's lose those customers for 73 days. 137 times 12,000 times 73 = 120,000,000 yen. That's about a million USD. The only days we had to close were when we could not clear the snow. But we were trying everything possible to clear it. That's some serious money.



So how about the grass? How much damage was there? On the tees and fairways, the damage was negligible. Of course traffic on slow-growing turf is going to beat it up a little bit. I did not notice that the traffic on frost or frozen ground added to that.

On the greens I was really worried. Courses with more staff would typically put covers out on the greens, at least over the area where the day's hole location would be. We did that as much as we could, but we could not cover all the greens, or even cover all of a single green, with the limited covers and staff that we had.

I've looked through old photos. This is the worst spot on the practice putting green in January. The putting green got a lot of traffic every morning. Pretty ugly.


This, in February, is the worst spot on the 11th green, which was shaded until mid-morning in winter.


That was as bad as it got. By March, even though frosts were still happening, the grass filled in. The damage had not been nearly as bad as I'd expected.


In fact, the greens were cored on March 27. But winter still wasn't over.



By April, there wasn't a hint of damage from all the traffic. No grass was dead, any thin spots were gone, and the grass was growing like crazy.



I'm not sure there's a moral to this story, other than one must do what is in the best interest of the facility. In the case of Habu CC that winter, it was best to have customers playing the golf course.

Monthly Turfgrass Roundup: November 2016

I found all kinds of articles and photos on a wide range of topics this month, from energy use on golf courses to potassium fertilizer and winter traffic, park golf in Japan, pitch and putt golf in Denmark, and plenty more.

Which varies more through the year, light or temperature?

Paul Jansen on golf in Denmark.

Tidåker et al. on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management.

Weed control with glyphosate, neat.

Is tropical carpetgrass a good species for putting greens?

Singapore National Stadium pitch to get another makeover.

More about the daily soil water balance.

Park Golf in Japan.

Indoor park golf for winter:


Does extra K fertilizer improve bentgrass winter traffic tolerance?

Obear et al. on clay lamellae development in sand rootzones.

Two divergent views about core aeration.

Max Schlossberg on soil testing and K recommendations.

More photos from Paul Jansen in Denmark.

Pitch and putt.

For more about turfgrass management, browse articles available for download on the ATC Turfgrass Information page, subscribe to this blog by e-mail or with an RSS reader - I use Feedly, or follow asianturfgrass on Twitter. Link and article roundups from previous months are here.