## Preventing nutrient deficiencies

##### 17 January 2017

The recording of my webinar on preventing nutrient deficiencies is now available in the videoteca section of the Campus del Césped website.

Or watch the English version right here.

This was fun. I hope you'll read the handout too. It is only 4 pages, with lots of white space, and gives a brief overview of this important topic. If you are still interested, then watch the video of the webinar at your leisure, and watch or download the slides too.

## This is a lot to fit into an hour

##### 10 January 2017

But I am going to try. I've got four things I want to explain in this upcoming webinar, and I have made some interesting calculations. Can calculations be provocative? Maybe these ones are provocative and interesting.

The Campus del Césped webinar is on 12 January at 17:00 Central European Time. You can register here.

Here is the 4 page pdf handout, in English.

These are the slides in English.

These are the slides in Spanish.

If you are are joining this webinar, you will find it useful to review the slides and handout prior to the event.

## Applying the grammar of greenkeeping

##### 10 October 2016

Over the past two weeks, I've had multiple conversations about the way I think of turfgrass management. It all starts with a definition of greenkeeping as managing the growth rate of the grass. I wrote about this in A Short Grammar of Greenkeeping. You can get your copy here.

Application of the grammar allows for easy communication among turfgrass managers about the work they are doing. I'll use the creeping bentgrass greens at Hazeltine National GC as an example. Volunteers from near and far were at Hazeltine during the Ryder Cup.

Let's say that I was from Madrid, or San Francisco, or Sydney, and I wanted to get green conditions that were more like those at Hazeltine. One of the ways I would try to do that would be to apply a similar quantity of nitrogen. But how to compare locations?

I would use the temperature-based growth potential (GP). For Minneapolis, the GP looks like this.

If I set the maximum monthly N at 3 g/m2, and multiply by the GP, I get a maximum annual N of 13.3 g/m2 for that location (Minneapolis). Now I'll make up a number, because I don't know exactly what it is, but let's say the actual quantity of N applied at Hazeltine was 9 g/m2.

I'll use the log percentage (L%) difference for consistency. The L% is the natural logarithm of the ratio of two numbers, multiplied by 100:

$L{\%}&space;=&space;100\:log_{e}(\frac{y}{x})$

If 9 g N were applied at Hazeltine, and the value calculated using GP as described above is 13.3 g, that is a 39 L% reduction.

If I want to apply proportionally the same amount of N at another location, I can calculate the GP amount, which I'll call a standard value, and then take a 39 L% reduction.

The standard using these calculations comes to 16.7 g at Madrid, 20.1 at San Francisco, and 28.9 at Sydney. Knowing that there was a 39 L% reduction at Hazeltine, my starting point for Madrid, after applying the same reduction, would be 11.3 g N/m2. At San Francisco, the N would go from the standard calculation of 20.1 down to 13.6 g, and at Sydney the 39 L% reduction takes N from 28.9 to 19.6.

This grammar facilitates the rapid sharing of relative inputs used to produce turf surfaces all over the world. Let's say we know there are amazing bentgrass greens in Sydney with N inputs of 10 g/m2/year. A corresponding quantity of N in Minneapolis would be 4.6 g.

This same approach can be applied for the quantity of water supplied in comparison to evapotranspiration (ET), to frequency of mowing, to evaluation of the growth rate, to assessment of the photosynthetic light, and so on. I find this approach quite useful in rapid implementation of maintenance practices that work well at location A, applied to location B. One then has a site specific starting point that can be further adjusted at location B, based on turfgrass response at that location.

## Golf and health

Yesterday I saw the new paper by Murray et al. in the British Journal of Sports Medicine on The relationships between golf and health: a scoping review. The reviewers identified 301 studies on this topic that met their search criteria, and then they summarized the results in terms of:

• participation
• golf and physical activity
• golf and longevity
• golf and physical health
• cardiovascular system
• respiratory system
• metabolic health
• cancer risk
• musculoskeletal health
• golf and injury
• golf and mental health/wellness
• mental health
• mental wellness

It's a comprehensive review, and if you are interested in this topic, I suggest you read the paper. From the golf and physical activity section, here's the calorie burn and walking distance:

Studies assessing calorie expenditure during golf typically classify golf as a moderate intensity physical activity with energy expenditure of 3.3—8.15 kcal/min, 264—450 kcal/hour, and a total energy expenditure of 531—2467 kcal/18 holes. Golfers walking 18 holes take between 11,245 and 16,667 steps, walking 4—8 miles, while those playing and riding a golf cart accrue 6280 steps or just under 4 miles.

This ties in well with something I've written about before, which is golf and health and multifunctional facilities. In the words of Don Mahaffey, "golf is good for you" but this aspect of golf is often overlooked.

See these posts for more from Don Mahaffey, and from info about STERF's research into multifunctional golf facilities:

## A few examples of multifunctional facilities

Weddings and banquets, of course, are common at many facilities. This is a chapel at Club de Golf Escorpión in Valencia.

Use of a practice tee for sports training, at Escorpión.

A football field at El Saler, just to the right of the 8th and 9th holes. This has been used by the Spanish national team and by Valencia CF, among many others.

Birdwatching is a common activity at El Saler, and this sign near the clubhouse shows many of the species one can find in this area.

Many golf facilities have trees or hedges with fruits or nuts. At Golf Costa Brava, the cork oaks are harvested.

Walking, hiking, or biking the Cami Ral will take one right through PGA Catalunya.

Hiking paths at Domaine de Falgos in the Pyrénées start at the golf clubhouse.

The driving range fairway at Domaine de Falgos doubles as a rugby field.

## El Saler video

##### 19 August 2016

Apropos of nothing, I really enjoyed this video of El Saler.

That video makes a nice break from considering hypotheses about identification of the most sustainable grass.

## Bentgrass in hot and not so hot places

##### 19 October 2015

Creeping bentgrass is a cool-season grass. When temperatures are hot, it doesn't perform well. I was asked if bentgrass in southern China was comparable to bentgrass in Spain. I don't think that is the right comparison. It would be more appropriate to compare southern China to Florida.

I downloaded the 2014 daily temperatures for the international airports at the cities shown in this chart, then plotted the cumulative sum of the mean temperature for the year.

Guangzhou and Orlando had the same cumulative sum of temperature. Bentgrass wouldn't be a good choice in Orlando, and I don't think it is a good choice in Guangzhou either.

A better way to look at bentgrass suitability is to look at the low temperatures. If the low temperatures are too high, for too many days, bentgrass will be really difficult to manage, eventually becoming too much of a problem and one would be better off with a warm-season grass.

For 2014, here's the number of days with a low temperature greater than or equal to 22°C. I'd look at anything more than 60 days in a year above that level as being difficult for bent.

This way of evaluating the temperature fits pretty well how one expects bentgrass to perform in these locations. Perfect in Kunming, the "Spring City." Pretty good in Spain. A challenge in Shanghai summers, with some warm-season greens there also, but possible with good management. Not used in Orlando. And I wouldn't want to try it in Guangzhou.

For more about temperatures and bentgrass, see:

## MLSN around the world

##### 10 August 2015

On a recent trip to China, I was browsing through Golf People magazine and noticed a familiar article -- Using Minimum Levels for Sustainable Nutrition -- translated into Chinese.

This is the original article in English, from the January 2014 issue of GCM.

I also wrote an article on this topic for the Asociación Española de Greenkeepers (AEdG), which they have translated and published in their Greenkeepers magazine.

With Mandarin, Spanish, and English articles about MLSN and how to use the guidelines, this information is readily accessible to speakers of the world's 3 most used languages.

## Can you imagine?

##### 17 May 2015

At Real Club de Golf El Prat, host of this week's Spanish Open, 3,600 trees fell in a violent windstorm on 9 December. The club has shared this video that shows the scale of the damage, and the impressive work that was done in the aftermath of the storm.

That the playing surfaces are in such fine condition this week, after having to deal with the storm damage and all the disruption that caused, shows the skill and effort of the greenkeeping staff at the club.

View from the 10th tee

At the 1st tee, 6 months after the storm that felled 3,600 trees

Creeping bentgrass on the 1st fairway at Real Club de Golf El Prat